Difference between animal cell and plant cell

Small point on the difference between plant cell and animal cell. Do you have biology classes and have doubts about the essential differences in separating the plant cell from the animal cell? All the answers to your questions are here.

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  • Plant cells and animal cells: the topo
  • The plant cell: what is it?
    • Structure of a plant cell
    • Examples of plant cells
  • The animal cell: what is it?
    • Structure and functioning of an animal cell
    • Examples of animal cells
  • What differentiates the plant cell from the animal cell
  • The great similarities between animal cells and plant cells

Plant cells and animal cells: the topo

All first of all, it should be known that the best way to differentiate the plant cell from the animal cell is to see the presence of organelles in these cells. It is this same presence of organelles that differentiates plant cells from animal cells.

Plant and animal cells are classified as eukaryotes. However, plant cells are composed of a cell wall, chloroplasts and vacuoles , this is absent on animal cells and it is important to know this in order to begin to differentiate the plant cell well from the animal cell. By the way, the animal cell is somewhat smaller than the plant cell.

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Plant and animal cells all have a variety of shapes and sizes. Animal and plant cells can be single-celled or pluricellular and have characteristics common or, on the contrary, large differences that can help us to better identify them.

The cell, plant or animal, is a life force that is also a unit that possesses remarkable properties. Everything is cell, energy and atom. But you probably wonder what a plant cell is, and what an animal cell is? We take stock of these two types of cells for you.

Plant cell: what is it?

A plant is a plant, as opposed to the animal kingdom. Plants are composed of live eukaryotes, which are multi-cellular and autotrophic. This simply means that these cells are able to feed on mineral matter.

We see it well with the indoor plants we have at home. Planted or in a mineral-enriched soil, these plants live. They can however, to stretch and weaken if the earth has been emptied of its minerals.

Plant cells have organelles, such as chloroplast, cell walls and vacuoles. These specific organelles are not present in animal cells.

At present, nearly 400,000 species of plants are listed, but we are far from the account. Many discoveries of plant cells and plant species are to be discovered, in lush territories such as the Amazon, among others, or Southeast Asia, with its few wild territories still unknown.

Structure of a plant cell

The plant cell consists of a cell wall (cellulose base), vacuoles and chloroplast. The size of a plant cell can range from 10 to 100 µm. The essential role of plant cells is promote photosynthesis, a process that allows plants to be autotrophic . Photosynthesis is the process that causes plants to produce a chlorophyll, found in the chloroplast of the plant cell.

Chloroplasts are only present in plant cells and are absent from animal cells, which we will tell you later. The vacuoles of a plant cell make up 90% of the volume of a plant cell .

Examples of plant cells

Among the most known plant cells are:

  • Parenchyma;
  • Collenchyma;
  • sclerenchyma;
  • Water-conducting cells;
  • Phloem, in other words a plant tissue, participates in the transport of nutrients that promote photosynthesis.

The animal cell: what is it?

The planet earth as we know it is occupied for 3/4 by the animal kingdom. For example, the human body, which contains only animal cells, is composed of cells ranging in size from 10 to 30 µm. Animal cells are therefore smaller than plant cells in diameter.

No cell wall or chloroplast in animal cells, which significantly differentiates them from plant cells. Indeed, the cell wall, along with the evolution of cells and species, would have disappeared, in favor of the development of tissues and organs of the body.

Tissues, organs, muscles, etc. promote the mobility and proper functioning of the body.

Structure and operation of an animal cell

The animal cell consists of a nucleus, a cytoskeleton and many others elements located inside the plasma membrane.

This plasma membrane is responsible for controlling how molecules evolve within and outside the cell. Through a very complex process, cells are born, renew, grow and die, in an incessant round that means that every 15 years a human body is actually completely renewed.

Animal cells as well as cells of the human body are very diverse. Each element within the animal cell has a different function: protection, mitochondria production, degradation, synthesis, secretion, storage, decomposition, etc.

Examples of animal cells

Animal cells are very numerous and all have different roles:

  • Skin cells: these cells work on the epidermis and dermis
  • Bone cells: these cells participate in the formation of the skeleton of humans and animals
  • Muscle cells: these cells allow the body to move
  • Nerve cells: these cells participate in the proper functioning of nerves and signal transmission
  • Blood cells: these cells are hormone, oxygen and nutrient taxis

What differentiates the plant cell from the animal cell

A cell is the unreducible fundamental unit of life, for a plant or for an animal. An animal or plant cell can be prokaryotic or eukaryotic, single-celled or multicellular.

In the plant cell, the nucleus is decentralized while it is central in an animal cell.

The animal cell has many small vacuole s while the plant cell has only one, very vast.

Mitochondria are present in fewer plant cells (if the plant cell has them)

Some organelles are present in animal cells and are absent in the plant cell (centrosomes, eyelashes, desmosomes, lysosomes)

Every animal or plant cell has a food material . In plant cells it is starch while in the animal cell it is glycogen.

The animal cell is unable to synthesize nutrients , unlike the plant cell.

The great similarities between animal cells and plant cells

Animal cells and animal cells have common points:

  • These are eukaryotic cells;
  • Both cells have a nucleus and cell membrane, as well as a Golgi apparatus
  • ; Cytoplasm is also present in plant cells and animal cells;
  • Ribosomes are finally found in the animal cell and in the plant cell.

In science you will necessarily have to look at the functioning of the cell and the genetic heritage. We hope that these explanations have been able to illuminate you on the plant cell and the animal cell. Beyond the differences, there are many similarities between the animal cell and the plant cell. Understanding their respective workings is a passion and a very sharp field of science.

Before going further on cells and in the field of life sciences, it is advisable to carefully remember the fundamentals about the plant cell and the animal cell so as not to lose yourself.